Raphael Gruener, PhD 

Professor Emeritus, Physiology
Research Interests

Membrane physiology of neurons and muscle cells in culture; Space Biology of Neuromuscular synapse formation; Pathophysiology of nerve-muscle membrane & synapse diseases


  • 1961 BSc Cellular Physiology - University of California Berkeley
  • 1963 MSc University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Biophysics
  • 1966 PhD University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Physiology/Biophysics
  • 1967 Post-Doctoral University College London
  • 1968 Post-Doctoral Scripps Institute of Oceanography